Dyslexia

childrens-readingChildren with Dyslexia display a combination of abilities and difficulties that affect the learning process in one or more areas of reading, spelling, and writing. Accompanying weaknesses may be identified in areas of speed or processing, short term memory, sequencing and organization, auditory and/or visual perception, spoken language and motor skills.

The Center for Autism and Dyslexia provides assessment and instruction which is specialized to accommodate children with reading and spelling difficulties. One to One and small group instruction with accommodations are utilized to engage children in a multi-sensory learning experience. The Center provides after school tutoring services to children needing support with their academic work. Please contact the Center for more information regarding our Orton-Gillingham based tutoring programs.

kids-reading-booksThe Center for Autism and Dyslexia provides screening, assessment and tutorial services for children with dyslexia and reading difficulties. Please contact the center at 419-957-1538 for more information on these services.


Comprehensive Dyslexia Evaluation

Kids love readingDyslexia is often referred to as a language based learning disability. It is the most common form of learning disability. Approximately 15-20% of the population has a learning disability and the National Institutes of Health report that 60% to 80% of those with learning disabilities have problems with reading and language skills. Individuals with dyslexia usually have difficulty with either receptive oral language skills, expressive oral language skills, reading, spelling, or written expression.

Dyslexia varies in degrees of severity. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disability, specific patterns of strengths and weaknesses with the individual, and the appropriateness of the intervention. It is not a result of lack of motivation, sensory impairment, inadequate instruction, environmental opportunities, low intelligence, or other limiting conditions. It is a condition which is neurologically based and often appears in families. Individuals with dyslexia respond successfully to timely and appropriate intervention.

tutor-learningIf you suspect dyslexia, it is important to have an evaluation to better understand the problem. Test results determine eligibility for special education services in various states, and they also determine eligibility for programs in colleges and universities. They provide a basis for making educational recommendations and determine the baseline from which remediation programs will be evaluated.

Individuals may be tested for dyslexia at any age. Tests which are selected will vary according to the age of the individual. Young children may be tested for phonological processing, receptive and expressive language abilities, and the ability to make sound/symbol associations. When problems are found in these areas remediation can begin immediately. A diagnosis of dyslexia need not be made in order to offer early intervention in reading instruction.

Professional learning evaluationProfessionals who possess expertise in several disciplines are best qualified to make a diagnosis of dyslexia. The testing may be done by a single individual or by a team of specialists. A knowledge and background in psychology, reading, language and education is necessary. The tester must have knowledge of how individuals learn to read and why some people have trouble learning to read, and must also understand how to measure appropriate reading interventions is necessary to make recommendations.

There is no one single test which can be used to test for dyslexia. A battery of tests must be administered. Tests should be chosen on the basis of their measurement properties and their potential to address referral issues. Various tests may be used but the components of a good assessment should remain constant. Tests which measure expressive oral language, expressive written language, intellectual functioning, cognitive processing, and educational achievement must be administered.

Evaluation

Learning AssessmentThe evaluator will conduct a comprehensive assessment to determine whether the person’s learning problems may be related to other disorders. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), affective disorders (anxiety, depression), central auditory processing dysfunction, pervasive developmental disorders, and physical or sensory impairments are among the other causes of learning problems that a competent evaluator will consider in making the diagnosis of dyslexia.

The following elements are included in an assessment for dyslexia:

  1. a developmental, medical, behavioral, academic and family history,
  2. a measure of general intellectual functioning,
  3. information on cognitive processing (language, memory, auditory processing, visual processing, visual motor integration, reasoning abilities and executive functioning),
  4. tests of specific oral language skills related to reading and writing success to include tests of phonological processing,
  5. educational tests to determine level of functioning in basic skills areas of reading, spelling, written language, and math – testing in reading/writing should include the following measures;
    • single word decoding of both real and nonsense words,
    • oral and silent reading in context (evaluate rate, fluency, comprehension and accuracy).
    • reading comprehension,
    • dictated spelling test,
    • written expression: sentence writing as well as story or essay writing,
    • handwriting
  6. a classroom observation, and a review of the language arts curriculum for the school-aged child to assess remediation programs which have been tried.

An average evaluation typically takes between two and three hours. At times it may be necessary to complete the battery of tests in several shorter sessions.

Cost of Evaluation;

The cost of a comprehensive dyslexia evaluation is $450.00. This fee must be paid prior to the initiation of the evaluation. As dyslexia is not considered a medical issue, testing for it is not covered by medical insurance. Families may make payment arrangements prior to the testing directly with the Center.

Download the Comprehensive Dyslexia Evaluation Information above as a .PDF document.